你的孩子,属于哪种弱视?

 

 Broadly speaking, there are two types of amblyopia:

 

一般来说,弱视可分为以下两类:

1.Organic*This type of amblyopia is caused by disease in the eyes itself or in the visual (neurological) pathway. I will not address this type of amblyopia in this book because the treatment, if anything can be done at all, is medical in nature.

1.器质性*:这种类型的弱视,是由眼睛本身的疾病,或视觉神经通路的疾病引起。本书中,我不会过多的涉及这种类型的弱视,因为这类弱视的治疗,如果能够治疗的话,也要先治疗引起弱视的病因。

2.Functional: Functional amblyopia is a condition in which there is reduced sight (visual acuity), not due to disease, but rather to a treatable disruption in normal cortical visual function. Within this type of amblyopia, there are many causes, the most common are the following:

2.功能性:功能性弱视,不是由疾病引起的,而是由于视皮质功能被阻断,引起的视力减退,这种类型的弱视,是能治愈的。功能性弱视的病因有多种,最常见的是以下几种:

a)Refractive: Functional amblyopia, usually due to a difference in the refractive measurement (optical prescription) in one eye as compared to the other. I can also be due to an equal, but very high amount of atigmatism or refractive measurement in both eyes.

1)屈光性:功能性弱视,通常是由于两眼的屈光度不同,且两眼屈光度相差较大。也可能是由于双眼都有高度远视、高度近视或散光。

*The use of the term amplyopia in this situation often causes confusion. When we speak of amblyopia we are generally speaking of a condition that is not due to disease or pathology. But since it is written about in many textbooks it is included here. There is also a type of amblyopia, called hysterical amblyopia which arises from emotional factors. But since these conditions are not common and are written about in many textbooks they are mentioned here simply for completeness.

*在这种情况下,使用弱视这个词,往往会让人产生混淆。我们谈到弱视时,通常所说的,不是由疾病或病理性原因引起的弱视。但是由于许多教科书,都包含这部分内容,所以本书也将它列入。还有另外一种弱视,称为癔症性弱视,是由情绪因素引起的。但由于这种情况并不常见,而且在许多教科书中都有记载,所以为了保持内容的完整性,本书中也提到这部分内容。

b) Strabismic: This occurs when one eye deviates (turns in or out) most or all of the time. To avoid double vision, vision is suppressed or turned off in the brain. Since the vision of the turned eye is not used, its function never develops to its full potential, resulting in amblyopia.

2)斜视性:当一只眼睛,大部分时间偏斜(内转或外转),或者一直都偏斜时,就会出现这种情况。为了避免出现复视,斜视的眼睛被大脑抑制,或关闭了斜视眼传入的信息。由于被抑制的眼睛不能发挥全部功能,从而导致弱视。

c) Mixed: In this type of amblyopia there are both organic and functional components, one superimposed on the other. With this type of amblyopia, it is often not possible to know how much improvement can be made until treatment is initiated and to know exactly when you have reached a limit where no further improvement is possible.

3)混合性:这种类型的弱视,既有器质性问题,又存在功能性问题,一种问题叠加在另一种之上。对于混合性弱视,在治疗没有开始之前,很难判断弱视眼能提高多少。只有在治疗一段时间后,才能判断弱视眼的提高,是否已经到了极限,以后可能很难再有改善。

 13.jpg

13.Monocular visual acuity test.

13 单眼视力测试