家长须知:弱视的冰山效应(一)

AMBLYOPIA DOESN’T JUST AFFECT EYES, IT AFFECTS THE WHOLE PERSON.

弱视不仅影响眼睛,还会影响整个人。

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VISUAL ABILITIES THAT MAY BE NEGATIVELY

AFFECTED IN AMBLYOPIA AND STRABISMUS

斜视、弱视患者可能存在的视功能问题

 

We know that in amblyopia there is decreased visual acuity, but there are many other visual abilities that can also affected which will impact a person’s performance in life.

我们都知道,弱视会导致视力下降,除此之外,其它的视功能也会受到影响,影响人的生活和工作。

 

As Dr. Leonard Press said in his book, Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy (this is a very important book that every optometrist who wants to work in the areas of behavioral optometry and vision therapy must read), amblyopia is like an iceberg. The visual acuity is the only observable part, but there are many other visual abilities which are affected. Unless a comprehensive vision analysis is performed, we cannot appreciate how the amblyopia is interfering with a person’s performance in, and enjoyment of life. (For more about this, see Chapter 19).

在《视觉训练应用理论》(本书对视光医生非常重要,是学习行为视光学和视觉训练的必读教科书)这本书里,Leonard Press博士指出,弱视就像一座冰山。视力相当于浮在水面上的冰山一角,是唯一能观察到的部分,但还有很多其他视功能,也会受到影响,却观察不到。除非进行全面的视功能检查,否则我们将无法衡量,弱视对个人表现及日常生活的影响。(关于这方面的更多内容,详见第十九章)。

 

For treatment to be maximally effective, the treatment must take the whole person into account to ensure overall performance in life will also improve. This concept is true for both people with amblyopia and those with strabismus.

为了使治疗效果最大化,治疗时必须以人为本,确保其在生活中的整体表现也有提高。这一理念,对弱视患者和斜视患者都适用。

Let’s do a brief review of the most important abilities that can be affected. If the reader is interested in delving much deeper into those topics, I recommend that you read my previous book, Is your child Intelligent, but Underachieving?

我们都知道,弱视会影响视功能。我们来简要回顾一下,哪些重要的视功能会受到影响。若读者想在这方面深入探索,建议您看一下我写的书,《为什么聪明的孩子却表现不好?》

 

EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL

眼球运动控制

 

Well-integrated eye movements support rapid and accurate movement of the eyes along lines of print, quick and precise movements between the chalkboard and the desk, and accurate visual tracking while driving and during sports activities.

良好的眼球协调运动,能快速准确地看清书本上的每行文字;上课时,眼睛能快速、准确的在黑板和课桌之间移动;在开车和运动时,也用到了精确的视觉追随。

 

THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF EYE MOVEMENTS:

眼球运动分为三种类型:

 

1. PERSUITS: Smooth following movements (tracking a moving ball)

2. SACCADES: When the eyes jump from one point to another (when the eyes move across the page from one word to another when reading)

3. FIXATIONS: The ability of the eyes to maintain steady gaze at a fixed point (When trying to read a letter or word)

1)追随:平滑的跟踪运动(跟踪移动中的球)

2)扫视:眼睛从一处看到另一处(阅读时,眼睛从页面中的一个词看到另一个词)

3)注视:保持眼睛在一个固定点凝视的能力(尝试阅读一个字母或单词时)

 

EYE MOVEMENTS FUNCTION TO:

眼球运动的功能:

 

Accurately follow the path of a ball in sports.

Smoothly, effortlessly track along a line of print when reading.

Accurately jump from one word or line to another, as in reading.

Change fixation from chalkboard to desk, and vice versa.

1)准确地跟踪球的运动轨迹。

2)轻松平稳地阅读每一行文字。

3)阅读时,准确地从一个字或一行,直接跳到另一个字或另一行。

4)上课时,可随时在黑板和课桌之间改变注视点。

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DIFICIENCIES IN THESE ABILITIES CAN CAUSE:

这些能力缺失,会有以下表现:

 

Loss of place when reading.

Needing to use the finger as a marker to keep one’s place.

Difficulty copying from one place to another.

Omitting short words when reading or needing to read the text several times to get meaning.

Reduced ability to catch or hit a ball.

1)阅读时串行。

2)阅读时需要用手指着字,以便记住位置。

3)抄写笔记困难。

4)阅读时丢字落字,或需要读很多次才能看懂。

5)接球或击球能力下降。

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