家长须知:弱视的冰山效应(二)

 

Leonard Press博士指出,弱视就像一座冰山。视力相当于浮在水面上的冰山一角,是唯一能观察到的部分,但还有很多其他视功能,也会受到影响,却观察不到。弱视不仅表现在视力降低,视功能也整体受损,影响孩子的学习和生活。上一期中,我们提到,弱视会影响眼球运动,导致孩子会有以下表现:

1)阅读时串行。

2)阅读时需要用手指着字,以便记住位置。

3)抄写笔记困难。

4)阅读时丢字落字,或需要读很多次才能看懂。

5)接球或击球能力下降。

本期文章,我们继续了解,弱视对孩子带来的影响。

ACCOMODATION (FOCUSING ABILITY)

调节(聚焦能力)

Rapid, automatic focusing ability is essential for efficient visual functioning. The ability make and keep a target clear, is directly related to understanding what we see and the ability to sustain visual attention.

自动快速的调节能力,对维持良好的视觉功能,是必不可少的。调节功能使我们看清物体,这直接关系到我们对所见事物的理解,并让我们维持视觉的注意力。

FUNCTIONS:

功能

Changing focus from far to near and back again.

Sustaining focus at near as when reading for an extended period of time.

1)看远、看近时,快速调焦的能力。

2)长时间阅读时,保持焦点集中在近处。

DEFICIENCIES IN THIS ABILITY CAN CAUSE:

调节能力不足可能导致:

Difficulty copying from the chalk board from one place to another.

Blurry vision, especially after reading.

Visual fatigue when reading or writing.

Rubbing the eyes, or tired eyes, especially after reading.

Reduced reading comprehension.

Avoidance of tasks at near, like reading or writing.

1)从黑板上抄笔记困难。

2)视力模糊,阅读后更模糊。

3)阅读或写作时,容易出现视觉疲劳。

4)经常揉眼睛,特别是阅读之后,觉得眼睛疲劳。

5)阅读理解力的下降。

6)逃避近距离学习,例如阅读和写作。

家长须知:弱视的冰山效应(二)

BINOCULARITY (EYE TEAMING ABILITY)

双眼视(双眼协调能力)

The human visual system is designed such that the two eyes and the twelve eye muscles work together so well that it seems as if they were working as one coordinated unit. This ability is closely related to eye movement control and focusing ability.

视觉系统由两只眼睛和十二条眼肌组成,它们彼此紧密配合,像是一个团队一起工作。双眼协调能力,与眼球运动控制和调节功能密切相关。

FUNCTIONS:

功能

Efficient coordination between the eyes and brain.

有效地协调双眼和大脑。

DEFICIENCIES IN THIS ABILITY CAN CAUSE:

双眼协调能力缺陷,会导致:

Convergence insufficiency

Strabismus (eyes turn in or out)

Double vision

Reduced depth perception

Eye strain

Reduced attention span

Difficulty with reading comprehension

Difficulty or insecurity in sports, driving, etc...

Avoidance of near tasks such as reading or writing

1)辐辏不足

2)斜视(内斜或外斜)

3)复视

4)深度知觉减弱

5)视觉疲劳

6)注意力集中时间短

7)阅读理解困难

8)运动或驾车困难,影响人身安全

9)逃避近距离学习,例如阅读和写作。

家长须知:弱视的冰山效应(二)

(文章摘自: CROSSED & LAZY EYES MYTHS,MISCONCEPTIONS AND TRUTHS)