大龄弱视治疗基础——神经可塑性

 

“We are in a new era of neuroscience and every day more applications are being investigated for brain rebabilitation. Neuroplasticity is a reality that nobody now denies.”

“我们正处在神经科学的新纪元。关于脑部康复的应用研究,每天都有新的进展。现在没人能否认,神经可塑性这个事实。”

V. S. RAMACHANDRAN

大脑与认知中心主任

Director of the Center for Brain and Cognition. Destinguished Professor with the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at

the University of California, San Diego.

圣地亚哥市,美国加州大学,心理学系和神经科学研究组特聘教授

Today, many advances in the field of neuroscience regarding brain plasticity have shown that the belief that the adult brain could not be changed is now absolutely false. It is now clear from many scientific studies that the brain remains plastic throughout life, and no one in the scientific world doubts this any longer.

如今,神经科学领域的许多研究进展表明:关于大脑可塑性,过去认为成人大脑不能改变,这种观念是完全错误的。现在,科学界认为大脑的可塑性,贯穿人的一生,这是毋庸置疑的。

什么是神经可塑性?

What is neural plasticity?

This term refers to the ability of the brain to establish new neural connections and achieve neuronal reorganization after suffering damage from any cause. This is also extended to include brain areas that did not develop normally at the age at which they should have. In fact, as stated by Dr. Susan Barry, it has been shown that the brain can grow new neurons at any age. This process is called neurogenesis.

最初,这个概念是指大脑受损后,大脑建立新的神经连接,从而达到神经重组的功能。后来,这个概念扩展到异常大脑发育领域(指大脑在发育阶段,没有正常发育)。事实上,正如Susan Barry博士所说,科学已经证实,在任何年龄,大脑都可以再生出新的神经元。这个过程叫做神经再生。

大龄弱视治疗基础——神经可塑性

How can we use neural plasticity to recover lost skills and develop new ones? Neurological reorganization therapy, which includes behavioral optometric vision therapy, works as follows: Neural learning takes place as the patient is exposed to a situation that is similar, but novel and slightly different, than what he is accustomed to. This, combined with motivation, feedback, awareness, control, and practice, actually strengthens old visual pathways and can even build new ones. This can be accomplished at any age.

神经可塑性,如何帮我们恢复失去的能力、形成新的能力呢?行为视光学视觉训练,是神经再生治疗的一个分支。治疗原理如下:让患者处于新环境中,这个环境和他习惯的环境类似,但略有不同。在这样的环境下,让患者积极尝试去看,获得反馈,去感知和控制,再反复练习。这样能够强化旧的视觉神经通路,甚至可以建立新的视觉神经通路。这种治疗方法适用于任何年龄。

To quote John Ratey, MD from his book A User’s Guide to the Brain,

“To change the wiring in one skill, you must engage in some activity that is unfamiliar, novel to you but related to that skill, because simply repeating the same activity only maintains already established connections… our brains are wonderfully plastic throughout adulthood, and the brain has a tremendous ability to compensate and rewire with practice.”

下面的引用,来自医学博士John Ratey的书A User’s Guide to the Brain《大脑使用指南》:

“想要改变某项技能对应的神经连接,你必须参与陌生的、全新的,但与这项技能相关的活动。否则,仅仅是简单地重复同样的活动,只能巩固已经建立的神经连接...大脑的可塑性是非常神奇的,且贯穿人的一生。通过训练,大脑可以不断地学习新技能,建立新的神经连接。”

What Dr. Ratey is speaking about in his book is exactly the theory behind, and the essence of, behavioral optometric vision therapy. Clinically it is what guides every behavioral optometric vision therapy procedure.

在这本书中,Ratey博士提到“神经可塑性理论”,正是视觉训练的的本质。在临床工作中,它对每个视觉训练师都具有指导作用。

大龄弱视治疗基础——神经可塑性

文章摘自: CROSSED & LAZY EYES MYTHS,MISCONCEPTIONS AND TRUTHS)